The Social Dimension of Charity: Integration of Migrants and Refugees

Pablo García Ruiz

Professor of Sociology

University of Zaragoza (Spain)

In 1967, during a get-together at the Tajamar school in Madrid, St. Josemaría recalled his pastoral efforts in the poor neighborhood of Vallecas: “When I was twenty-five years old, I used to come often to all these outlying districts, to wipe away tears, to help those who needed assistance, to show affection to the children, the elderly and the sick; and I received in turn the affection of many of the people – and also a few stones.”[1] On another occasion, praying aloud, he recalled those years: “They were hours and hours in all directions, on foot from one part to another, among the poor and completely destitute, who had nothing at all. And in the hospitals, and in the houses where there were sick people, if you can call those hovels houses. They were helpless and sick people.”[2]

Spurred by his priestly zeal, between 1927 and 1931 St. Josemaría made many visits to the sick in various neighborhoods of Madrid, collaborating with the intense apostolic work of the Apostolic Ladies of the Sacred Heart from the Foundation for the Sick.[3] When he ceased being chaplain there, he looked for ways to continue his involvement in serving the sick and the needy. He had recently become acquainted with the work of the Congregation of St. Philip Neri and began to take part in the activities they carried out at the General Hospital. It was also at this time that he decided to accompany his friend Fr. José María Somoano in his dedication to the sick at the King’s Hospital, on the outskirts of Madrid. The Daughters of Charity who worked there during the difficult decade from 1926 to 1936 bore witness to St. Josemaría’s generosity in caring for so many souls in need of his priestly attention. The tuberculosis patients, most of whom were young, trusted this cheerful priest who encouraged them to transfer their hope from earthly security to God, who would never abandon them. He showed no fear of contagion. Nor was he afraid of misunderstandings or anti-clerical threats, so frequent at that time.[4]

This commitment to service and charity was of great importance in the maturing of St. Josemaría’s human and supernatural personality. Years later he confided that it was there that he found the strength and the grace to bring forward the foundational mission that God had entrusted to him.[5]

He encouraged the first young people who began to take part in Opus Dei’s apostolic activities to carry out similar works of mercy: caring for the sick, teaching catechism to children, going out to the peripheries of Madrid to help those in need. He saw very clearly that God wants all of us to live the virtue of charity: to love Him with our whole heart and, through Him, all men and women, especially those most in need. Every human being is created in the image of God and deserves to be loved: we have to “venerate the image of God that is found in every person.”[6] For Christ himself taught us: “Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me” (Mt 25:40)

St. Thomas Aquinas taught that, among the virtues guiding our relationship with our neighbor, mercy is the greatest.[7] St. Augustine defines mercy as the compassion that our heart feels in the face of another person’s misery, impelling us to help them if possible.[8] Mercy is the aspect of charity that is directed to those afflicted by a serious evil, especially when it is not the result of their own actions or choices.[9]

Charity is an ordered virtue. It should be directed, in first place, to those closest to us: “I don’t believe in your charity,” St. Josemaría said, “if you persist in mortifying the people you live with; if you are indifferent to their joys, sorrows or grief; if you are not trying to understand or overlook their defects, provided they do not offend God.”[10]Nevertheless, urgent and extreme need constitutes a stronger reason for helping one’s neighbor than even the demands of family ties or friendship. It is the type and extent of the need that dictates what is to be done, not who is in need.[11]

Mercy is a crucial virtue for the development of the Christian life. St. Josemaría himself testified to this when he wrote in his Intimate Notes: “it was in the Foundation for the Sick that our Lord wanted me to discover my priestly heart.”[12]

Human needs change with the passage of time and in the course of history. Economic development has made it possible, in many societies, to reduce poverty and improve people’s living conditions. However, other problems and needs arise in every age and continue to call for the exercise of a special charity.

The era of migrations

Pope Francis has called our era “the age of migrations,”[13] Certainly, the flow of migrants in the first decades of the 21st century, as Benedict XVI pointed out, “is a striking phenomenon because of the sheer numbers of people involved, the social, economic, political, cultural and religious problems it raises, and the dramatic challenges it poses to nations and the international community. We can say that we are facing a social phenomenon of epoch-making proportions.”[14]

Migration is not a new phenomenon. There have always been people who, leaving their place of birth, have moved to other cities or countries in search of a better future for themselves and their families. During the first decades of industrialization, the rural exodus to urban areas was very extensive, as well as the problems of the cities to accommodate them in a humanly dignified way. That is how many of the outlying neighborhoods of Madrid arose to which St. Josemaría made trips during the 1920’s and 30’s. After the Second World War, millions of people from the countries of southern Europe sought work in the countries of the north, where economic development was greater.

Current migration is a new phenomenon in terms of its extension and intensity. According to data from the United Nations.[15] in 2020 more than 270 million people were living permanently in a country other than the one in which they were born. In that year, Europe was home to 82 million international migrants. Mainly due to immigration, from 2009 to 2019 the population increased in countries such as Norway (12%), Switzerland (12%) and Sweden (8%). Germany had 13 million immigrants, the United Kingdom 10 million, France 8 million, Italy and Spain about 6 million. In proportional terms, the European country with the highest percentage of immigrants in relation to its population was Switzerland (29%), followed by Sweden (20%), Austria (19%) and Belgium (17%).

In other parts of the world, immigration is also an important phenomenon. In 2020, the United States had more than 50 million registered immigrants, accounting for just over 15% of its population. South Africa had 4.2 million immigrants, 7.2% of its total population; Ivory Coast had 2.5 million, or 10% of its population. Turkey had around 6 million, while Saudi Arabia had more than 13 million, or 38% of its population. The countries of South America as a whole received 9 million immigrants, while 17 million emigrants left these countries in the same year.

The majority of people who migrate to other countries do so for reasons related to work, family or studies. For the most part, these migrations are not a source of problems either for the migrants or for the countries that receive them. However, quite a few people leave their homes and countries for other compelling and sometimes tragic reasons, such as war, persecution or natural disasters.

According to United Nations data, in 2020 26 million people sought refuge in other countries, half of them under 18 years of age, due to armed conflicts in their countries of origin. The wars in the Middle East have given rise to a large number of refugees, first in Iraq and then in Syria, who have found refuge in neighboring countries. Thus, in 2020, in Lebanon there were 156 refugees per 1,000 inhabitants; in Jordan, 72 per 1,000; in Turkey, 45 per 1,000. In other parts of the world, situations of extreme violence, serious political or economic instability, as well as climatic events and natural disasters, have caused the displacement of millions of people within their own countries or to other countries such as Uganda (1.2 million), Ethiopia (1 million), Kenya (400,000), Colombia (1 million), and Peru (0.5 million). In Europe, since the refugee crisis in 2015, Germany has received 1.5 million people from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan; France almost 400,000 and Sweden, 300,000. These have more recently been joined by the many persons displaced by the wars in Ukraine and elsewhere in the world.

The reasons for migrating are therefore quite varied, as are the living conditions of the migrants. The consequences for the societies of origin and destination are also very diverse, as are the demands for care and reception.

New needs and new opportunities

Those who decide to emigrate tend to have a higher level of education and social skills than the rest of their communities of origin, which also means they are more likely to make contributions in their country of destination. They often become a link, a channel for mutual understanding and shared progress between the two societies.[16] They help their families of origin with economic remittances and cultural exchanges. They contribute in their place of destination by carrying out needed jobs, paying taxes and social contributions, entrepreneurship and the generation of social capital, among other ways.

The needs of immigrants are also quite varied, depending on their situation. Refugees and displaced persons, although a small percentage of migrants, have the greatest need for assistance and support because they have had to leave their homes and belongings behind when fleeing. Also especially vulnerable are those migrants who are in an irregular legal situation either because they entered the country without the required permits or because these have expired. And very especially in need of help are those who have been caught up in criminal human trafficking networks. The vast majority of immigrants are not vulnerable in these ways. However, they do face specific challenges that lead to everyday problems.

Migrants, as Pope Francis said, “experience separation from their place of origin, and often a cultural and religious uprooting.”[17] Those who migrate to another country usually have relatively little knowledge of the social milieu of their new country. For many, the first barrier is language. This makes it difficult to perform well in daily situations, such as understanding others and being understood at work, at the doctor’s office, at the supermarket, in administrative procedures, at their children’s school meetings, in daily relationships with others and in making friends beyond one’s own linguistic group.

Even with sufficient knowledge of the language, newly arrived immigrants also often lack primary support networks of relatives and acquaintances to turn to in times of trouble. Substitute social networks then arise, usually composed of immigrants of the same origin, which facilitate knowledge of and access to important resources but at the same time run the risk of inhibiting integration into the host society. Many immigrants manage to get ahead in life, taking advantage of the employment, educational and social opportunities open to them. However, many also suffer from the lack of opportunities and are the first to feel the impact of any crisis, ending up unemployed or in precarious and poorly paid jobs that are not commensurate with their professional qualifications.

For young migrants, Benedict XVI said, “the problems of the so-called ‘difficulty of dual belonging’ seem to be felt in a particular way: on the one hand, they feel a strong need to not lose their culture of origin, while on the other, the understandable desire emerges in them to be inserted organically into the society that receives them.”[18] Testimonies to this reality are not lacking in a multitude of online forums:

“As the daughter of two immigrants, I feel like I have to work twice as hard as my friends from families who have lived here for generations, just to prove to my parents that it was worth it to come to this country, make that journey and start a new life from scratch. Being the daughter of immigrants means striving to live a balance between two different cultures. As a child and teenager, it was not easy for me to accept that I belonged to these two different worlds, so opposed to each other”[19]

For some young people, this duality leads to a clash between the parents, who remain anchored in their own culture, and their children, who quickly make their new social milieu their own. Moreover other young people, students from other countries who are far from home, often feel alone and under pressure to study, and sometimes suffer special financial difficulties.

A social and political challenge

Host countries are very aware of the challenges posed by migratory flows, and for decades have been implementing public and social policies to try to address them. Migration has become a major political issue, intertwining concerns related to human rights, economic development, and geopolitics at national, regional and international levels. In addition, immigration is generating social and media controversy in some societies. Anti-immigrant sentiments are appearing in political rhetoric and fueling demands for reduced inflows and tougher conditions of access.

The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church points out that, in the more developed countries, immigration “is often perceived as a threat to the high levels of well-being achieved thanks to decades of high economic growth.” But it also stresses that, with proper management, “immigration can be a resource rather than an obstacle to development” (no. 297).

Pope Francis has often stressed that the attitude of rejecting immigration “is an alarm signal, warning us of the moral decadence we face if we continue to give space to a ‘throw-away’ culture.” Francis frequently points to the risk of members of developed societies disregarding the problems and sufferings of migrants, as though the only responsible party were the State and passing certain laws were enough. We should never consider situations caused by immigration as impossible or without solution. In his first trip as Pope in 2013, to the then overcrowded reception center for migrants on the island of Lampedusa, he tried to stir up people’s consciences:

“Who among us has wept for the death of these brothers and sisters of ours, for all those who traveled on the boats, for the young mothers carrying their children, for the men who were looking for a means to support their families?”[20]

Today, over two thousand people still drown in the Mediterranean every year trying to reach the coasts of Europe in fragile boats.[21]

The Church’s mission has a necessary public and prophetic dimension, which respects the autonomy of the political sphere but does not limit its action to the private sphere, nor is it limited to material assistance and education. The Church “cannot and must not remain on the sidelines in the building of a better world, or fail to reawaken the spiritual energy that can contribute to the betterment of society.”[22] In accordance with this mission, she exhorts the institutions in countries receiving immigrants to “watch carefully so that the temptation to exploit foreign workers by depriving them of the rights guaranteed to other workers does not spread.” While seeking to create greater job opportunities in the places of origin, and regulating migratory flows according to criteria of equity and equilibrium, “immigrants should be received as persons and helped, together with their families, to integrate into society.”[23]

This policy requires sincere collaboration between the migrants’ countries of origin and destination, accompanied by appropriate international regulations, “with a view to safeguarding the needs and rights of individual migrants and their families, and at the same time, those of the host societies.”[24] It is not a matter of receiving immigrants indiscriminately, but rather of establishing mechanisms that guarantee the common good of both the country receiving them and the migrants. In recent years, some encouraging initiatives have begun, such as the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, promoted in 2018 by the United Nations.[25] The aim is to achieve greater international collaboration and improve the management of migration flows.

Pastoral challenges linked to immigration

To foster collaboration with social and political institutions, strengthen pastoral care for migrants and prevent them from being excluded or ignored, in 2017 Pope Francis launched the Migrants and Refugees Section, a department of the Vatican curia whose mission is to assist bishops and all those who seek to help vulnerable people who have to move to a new country. He has also encouraged the universal Church to care for those displaced by conflicts, natural disasters, persecutions and extreme poverty, those fleeing in search of safety, those stuck on their journey and the victims of human trafficking.

Refugees and the victims of human trafficking hold a central place in the heart of Pope Francis. On the Day of Migrants and Refugees in 2020 he said: “During the flight into Egypt, the child Jesus experienced with his parents the tragic fate of the displaced and refugees, which is marked by fear, uncertainty and unease. Unfortunately, in our own times, millions of families can identify with this sad reality. In each of these people, forced to flee to safety, Jesus is present as he was at the time of Herod. In the faces of the hungry, the thirsty, the naked, the sick, strangers and prisoners, we are called to see the face of Christ who pleads with us to help.”[26] “The Church sees this entire world of suffering and violence with the eyes of Jesus, who was moved with pity at the sight of the crowds wandering like sheep without a shepherd.”[27] How can the Church act except by drawing inspiration from the example and words of Christ? The response of the Gospel is mercy (cf. Lk 6:36).

The merciful action of the Church takes many shapes. In every diocese there are numerous activities carried out by parishes, associations and institutions moved by hope, courage and “a new ‘creativity’ in charity.”[28] It is not a case of implementing welfare programs from the top down, but rather of undertaking a journey together.[29] Beyond material aid, this requires offering sincere fraternal support, helping each person to face their respective problems, promoting their dignity as persons.[30] As Pope Francis exhorts, it is a matter of “seeing in the migrant and the refugee not only a problem to be solved, but a brother and a sister to be welcomed, respected and loved.”[31]

When we wholeheartedly welcome a person who is very different from us, this enables them, while continuing to be themselves, to develop in new ways. It is important to value the contribution that immigrants can make to the well-being and progress of everyone. Mutual communication is needed, discovering each other’s richness, appreciating what unites us and seeing differences as opportunities for growth in mutual respect. Patient and trusting dialogue is needed, so that individuals, families and communities can transmit the values of their own culture and welcome what is good in the experience of others.[32]

The presence of migrants and refugees today represents an invitation to recover some essential dimensions of Christian existence that are in danger of being forgotten by a lifestyle drugged with comforts. At times, in the face of this invitation, the first reaction can be one of fear or doubt about how to act. This is a natural human reaction to what is different and unknown, to what we consider risky, perhaps even dangerous. We may view this situation as a possible source of deception or misunderstanding, of someone taking advantage of our good will. At other times, fear is the result of a lack of preparation, of not knowing how to help. Problems arise “when these doubts and fears condition our way of thinking and acting to the point ofmaking us intolerant, closed and perhaps even – without realizing it – racist. Fear robs us of the desire and ability to encounter the other.”[33]

Mercy leads us, above all, to recognize the other person as our neighbor, as a member of the same community. Therefore, to be merciful to others is to extend the bonds of community to the point of including them in these relationships. And, from then on, to care for them as we care for the other members of our community.[34] The Church does so by encouraging groups and associations organized by parishes and other institutions, where encounter is facilitated. Together with other social bodies, including migrant and refugee associations, networks of collaboration are set up that foster equality and respect for others, and in which “circuits of reciprocal gifts” can emerge.[35] This opens up possibilities for many other people to take part, helping to overcome fears, doubts and uncertainties.

This is what St. Josemaría was referring to in the 1967 get-together mentioned above, when he said: “Today for me this is a dream come true, a blessed dream, that I experience in so many poor neighborhoods of large cities, where we treat people with affection, looking them in the eye, face to face, because we are all equal.” He was speaking, first of all, about Tajamar, the school that opened its doors in the 1950’s in a neglected district of Madrid where there was no secondary school at that time. Over twelve thousand unschooled children were living there, amid the rubbish dumps and shantytowns. But St. Josemaría was also referring to other educational and social projects that, under his impulse, were being implemented in the places where Opus Dei was carrying out its apostolic work. Thus, through the joint efforts of the Work’s faithful, cooperators, friends and the beneficiaries of these works, various initiatives were launched to improve the opportunities and living conditions of many disadvantaged people and communities.

St. Josemaría’s impulse: the imagination of charity

During his lifetime, St. Josemaría spurred forward many initiatives aimed at needy and vulnerable people, including immigrants and displaced persons. Thus corporate works arose that offered young people and adults opportunities for academic and personal growth; professional training in various trades in cities and rural areas; education in home management and health care; medical assistance, spiritual accompaniment; and above all, the ability to mobilize resources within and outside the communities in order to continually adapt activities to the needs and capacities of the recipients.

“Opus Dei,”St. Josemaría said, “has to be present where there is poverty, where there is unemployment, where there is sadness, where there is suffering, so that the suffering is borne with joy, so that poverty disappears, so that work is not lacking (because we train people to help them find it), so that we bring Christ into the life of each person, to the extent that they want this, because we are great friends of freedom.”[36]

In one of his homilies, St. Josemaría made clear his great love for freedom: “I cannot propose to you a particular way to solve problems of this kind; there is no reason why I should. But, as a priest of Christ, it is my duty to remind you of what Holy Scripture says.”[37] Thus he encouraged us to get involved, with intelligence and personal responsibility, in undertakings of solidarity, charity and mercy towards those whom God has placed close to us, especially the most needy. His teachings have been very fruitful, not only because of the growth of corporate works, but perhaps above all because of the numerous initiatives of people,both members and non-members of Opus Dei, who have accepted his invitation and try to put it into practice.

The Opus Dei website offers testimonies of ordinary people who try to live the spirit of the Work in their daily lives. Sometimes these testimonies give witness to the “creativity of charity” that all Christians are called to exercise. They are ordinary examples that illuminate the path for others, and remind us that God calls all of us to care for one another, particularly those most in need. These needy people, in our time, undoubtedly include immigrants and refugees.

For example, some university students and young professionals in London report that they spent several weekends helping out in a refugee camp in Calais. The idea came up during a seminar organized by Caritas where various parishes and institutions presented solidarity initiatives. During the first trip, the group was sent to “Utopia 56,” a new camp built in Dunkirk and managed by Doctors Without Borders, where they helped install small wooden huts occupied by Kurdish men. On the second weekend, they went to “The Jungle,” another refugee camp that is more precarious and ethnically diverse than the previous one. This time they helped in distributing supplies and cleaning the camp. The young men spent the whole day picking up trash and moving all kinds of waste piled up there. In their own words:

“The task was daunting and, truth be told, alone one would have soon given up. But seeing the commitment of other volunteers gave us courage to continue until the mountain of garbage gradually disappeared. Charity is contagious. One would not have imagined that spending a weekend cleaning up a refugee camp would bring so much joy and gratitude to a group of young professionals and students.”[38]

Another story involves a village in Andalusia, where dozens of immigrants work seasonally in the fields. Many of them were sleeping in the open, without a place to shelter from the cold nights. Others lived in overcrowded conditions. For a few years now, the residents of this village were determined to find a place where these workers could sleep safely under a roof. But there was no infrastructure to house these immigrants. Seven hundred houses were empty due to the death or departure of their tenants. But the landlords refused to rent these out, since they didn’t trust the immigrants. Housing was needed and empty houses existed, but there was also a lack of trust. A woman who now lives in Madrid but who often went there to care for her sick father was determined to find a solution. She contacted some businessmen and the owners of the houses. In her own words, some members of a foundation, of which she is a volunteer,

“sought out the owners of the houses and gave them the clear assurance that nothing would happen if they rented them out. The initiative was successful because, besides the support of the foundation, it had the backing of the City Council, which has since provided furniture and everything necessary to furnish the houses. The businessmen made a commitment to the owners of the houses to pay for any possible damage and to deduct it from the seasonal workers’ salaries. Everyone was thus obliged to make things work. Many neighbors, infected by the spirit of the initiative, donated furniture, offered warm clothes and delivered radiators for the immigrants. I am a member of Opus Dei, where I have learned that all men and women are important, both in body and soul. I want to see everyone treated well, like anyone else in the town. So when I came here and saw this problem, I began to do what I could to resolve it.”[39].

The initiative began with only five houses, to which more were added in successive years. The foundation supporting the initiative provided a group of volunteers who since then have been putting people in contact with each other and supervising the whole process. They have been so successful that other municipalities have asked for advice on how to deal with the same situation in their town.

One more story. A French couple recalls how, one August day, they received a call from a priest friend who informed them of the serious situation of hundreds of Iraqi Christians who had taken refuge in Erbil, the capital of Kurdistan, after fleeing their homes one night, leaving all their belongings behind. He was looking for families in France who would be willing to take them in. At first, they confided,

“We were a bit reluctant to host them: we have seven children, the house is not huge.... We weighed the pros and cons and it was clear that our comfort would be affected. Our priest friend was seeking places of welcome for nine families. While we were still thinking it over, my in-laws had already agreed to receive a group. Seeing this family, we decided that we couldn’t hesitate any longer. Our older children, 15 and 14, encouraged us to accept. 'We can make room,' they said. 'We will organize the house differently and we can get help.’ So far, the experience has been very positive. Bassam and Raghad and their three children arrived soon after. Of course, they do not speak French, but fortunately Bassam’s father was an English teacher in Iraq, and so we can communicate. Within a few days, the children started going to school and the parents started studying French and looking for work. Our life is going well thanks to their great refinement. There have been no complaints at all, and when small difficulties arise, the spirit of Opus Dei (to which my husband and I belong) helps us to find God’s will in the small annoyances of daily life, and stay in good spirits.”[40]

These stories reveal a willingness to serve others and a capacity to encounter people who deserve our respect, understanding and closeness. As St. Josemaría said: “Be convinced that you will never resolve the great problems of humanity with justice alone.” The dignity of the human person demands more: charity, which is like an “overflow” of justice.

The spirit of Opus Dei encourages people to live charity in their daily lives: at work, when resting, in family life, among friends and fellow citizens. In striving to live the social dimension of charity, people who follow this spirit can count on the help of Opus Dei’s corporate works, and also of parishes, associations and institutions of the Church and civil society which, with professional dedication, break down walls, build bridges and open channels of collaboration for everyone, in accord with their own possibilities. These may involve welcoming a refugee family in urgent need, organizing the rental of adequate housing for seasonal workers, or dedicating a weekend to cleaning up a refugee camp. It may also involve playing soccer together, chatting in the supermarket, sharing in a business negotiation, looking for scholarships, giving catechism classes, or a thousand other things. Welcoming the immigrant, the newcomer, the vulnerable person, also means treating him or her as part of our own community, enabling them to share in our daily life, to become a colleague at work, a neighbor alongside us, a friend at school, a partner in our conversation.

[1] St. Josemaría, Notes from a family gathering, October 1, 1967, in Obras XII-1967, p. 26.

[2] St. Josemaría, “The Paths of God,” in In Dialogue with the Lord, ch. 24, Scepter Publishers.

[3] Cf. Julio Gonzalez-Simancas, “St. Josemaría entre los enfermos de Madrid (1927-1931),” Studia et Documenta 2 (2008), pp. 147-148.

[4]Cf. Ana Sastre, Tiempo de Caminar, Rialp, Madrid 1989, p. 112.

[5] St. Josemaría, “The Paths of God,” op. cit.

[6]Friends of God, n. 230.

[7] Cf, Summa Theologica, II-II, q. 30, art. 4.

[8] Cf. St. Augustine,The City of God, Book IX. Ch. 3.

[9] Cf. Summa Theologica, II-II, q. 30, art. 1.

[10]Friends of God, no. 227.

[11] Cf. Summa Theologica, II-II, q. 30, art. 3.

[12] St. Josemaría, Apuntes intimos, no. 731, quoted in Gonzalez-Simancas, op. cit.

[13] Francis, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees, 2017.

[14] Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, no. 62.

[15] Cf. International Organization for Migration (IOM), World Migration Report 2020.

[16] Cf. Amin Maalouf, El desajuste del mundo, Alianza, Madrid 2010, pp. 282-298.

[17] Francis, Fratelli Tutti, no. 38.

[18] Benedict XVI, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees 2008.

[19] A wide range of stories can be found, for example, on the website I am an immigrant, https://www.iamanimmigrant.com....

[20] Francis, Homily, July 8, 2013.

[21] Cf. IOM, World Migration Report 2020, p. 95.

[22] Francis, Fratelli tutti, no. 276.

[23]Catechism of the Social Doctrine of the Church, no. 298.

[24] Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, no. 62.

[25] https://www.ohchr.org/es/migra...

[26] Francis, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees 2020.

[27] Benedict XVI, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees 2006.

[28] John Paul II, Novo Millennio Ineunte, no. 50.

[29] Francis, Fratelli tutti, no. 129.

[30] Cf. John Paul II, Centesimus Annus, nos. 48-49.

[31] Francis, Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees 2019.

[32] Cf. Francis, Fratelli tutti, nos. 133-134.

[33] Francis Fratelli tutti, no. 41.

[34] Cf. Alasdair MacIntyre, Dependent Rational Animals, pp. 125-127. Also John Haldane, Practical Philosophy: Ethics, Society and Culture, St Andrews 2011, ch. 3.

[35]Pierpaolo Donati, Más allá del multiculturalismo, Ed. Cristiandad, Madrid 2017, p. 221.

[36] St. Josemaría, Notes from a family gathering, October 1, 1967, in Obras XII-1967, p. 26.

[37]Christ Is Passing By, no. 167.




Romana, n. 77, July-December 2023, p. 261-273.

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